SafeKit Training - Introduction
- Examples of redundancy and high availability solution
- Evidian SafeKit sold in many different countries with Milestone
- 2 solutions: virtual machine or application cluster
- Distinctive advantages
- More information on the web site
- SafeKit training
- Cluster of virtual machines
- Mirror cluster
- Farm cluster
- Mirror module / pptx
- Mirror's states in action
- start_prim / stop_prim scripts
- Heartbeat (<hearbeat>)
- Virtual IP address (<vip>)
- Real-time file replication (<rfs>)
- How real-time file replication works?
- Farm module / pptx
- Farm's states in action
- start_both / stop_both scripts
- Farm heartbeats (<farm>)
- Virtual IP address (<vip>)
Server 1 (PRIM) runs the application. Clients are connected to a virtual IP address. SafeKit replicates in real time modifications made inside files through the network.
The replication is synchronous with no data loss on failure contrary to asynchronous replication.
You just have to configure the names of directories to replicate in SafeKit. There are no pre-requisites on disk organization. Directories may be located in the system disk.
When Server 1 fails, Server 2 takes over. SafeKit switches the virtual IP address and restarts the application automatically on Server 2.
The application finds the files replicated by SafeKit uptodate on Server 2. The application continues to run on Server 2 by locally modifying its files that are no longer replicated to Server 1.
The failover time is equal to the fault-detection time (30 seconds by default) plus the application start-up time.
Failback involves restarting Server 1 after fixing the problem that caused it to fail.
SafeKit automatically resynchronizes the files, updating only the files modified on Server 2 while Server 1 was halted.
Failback takes place without disturbing the application, which can continue running on Server 2.
After reintegration, the files are once again in mirror mode, as in step 1. The system is back in high-availability mode, with the application running on Server 2 and SafeKit replicating file updates to Server 1.
If the administrator wishes the application to run on Server 1, he/she can execute a "swap" command either manually at an appropriate time, or automatically through configuration.
Virtual IP address in a farm cluster
On the previous figure, the application is running on the 3 servers (3 is an example, it can be 2 or more). Users are connected to a virtual IP address.
The virtual IP address is configured locally on each server in the farm cluster.
The input traffic to the virtual IP address is received by all the servers and split among them by a network filter inside each server's kernel.
SafeKit detects hardware and software failures, reconfigures network filters in the event of a failure, and offers configurable application checkers and recovery scripts.
The network load balancing algorithm inside the network filter is based on the identity of the client packets (client IP address, client TCP port). Depending on the identity of the client packet input, only one filter in a server accepts the packet; the other filters in other servers reject it.
Once a packet is accepted by the filter on a server, only the CPU and memory of this server are used by the application that responds to the request of the client. The output messages are sent directly from the application server to the client.
If a server fails, the SafeKit membership protocol reconfigures the filters in the network load balancing cluster to re-balance the traffic on the remaining available servers.
With a stateful application, there is session affinity. The same client must be connected to the same server on multiple TCP sessions to retrieve its context on the server. In this case, the SafeKit load balancing rule is configured on the client IP address. Thus, the same client is always connected to the same server on multiple TCP sessions. And different clients are distributed across different servers in the farm.
With a stateless application, there is no session affinity. The same client can be connected to different servers in the farm on multiple TCP sessions. There is no context stored locally on a server from one session to another. In this case, the SafeKit load balancing rule is configured on the TCP client session identity. This configuration is the one which is the best for distributing sessions between servers, but it requires a TCP service without session affinity.
Advanced clustering architectures
Several modules can be deployed on the same cluster. Thus, advanced clustering architectures can be implemented:
- the farm+mirror cluster built by deploying a farm module and a mirror module on the same cluster,
- the active/active cluster with replication built by deploying several mirror modules on 2 servers,
- the Hyper-V cluster or KVM cluster with real-time replication and failover of full virtual machines between 2 active hypervisors,
- the N-1 cluster built by deploying N mirror modules on N+1 servers.
This video shows a mirror module configuration with synchronous real-time replication and failover.
The file replication and the failover are configured for Microsoft SQL Server but it works in the same manner for other databases.
This video shows a farm module configuration with load balancing and failover.
The load balancing and the failover are configured for Apache but it works in the same manner for other web services.
This video shows a Hyper-V cluster with full replications of virtual machines.
Virtual machines can run on both Hyper-V servers and they are restarted in case of failure.